Research quality and precision proven with time



Just was published book:

Anna V. Andreenkova. COMPARATIVE CROSS-NATIONAL SURVEYS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES: theory, methodology, practice. Moscow, 2014, 520 pages.

Where to buy:

В магазине "Библиоглобус" по адресу: ул. Мясницкая, 6/3, стр. 1, Москва, 101990; в Интернет-магазине "Библиоглобуса"

Через ;

Книжный магазин «Русская деревня»



This book of Dr.Anna Andreenkova, survey methodologist, National coordinator of European Social Survey in Russia since its start in Russia in 2006, working in comparative surveys in post-Soviet countries for more than 20 years in the Institute for Comparative Social Research (CESSI), presents the achievements, issues and limitations of the methodology of comparative cross-national social surveys. It starts from the detail analysis of why we need to compare countries and cultures, the reasons of fast and expanding growth of cross-countries comparisons based on survey data. The author suggests the definition of comparative cross-country surveys, explore the concept of comparability of survey data and the classification of comparative surveys. The book contains detail history of comparative cross-national surveys, starting from the beginning of it in late 1940s and till large global and regional comparative time-series surveys of recent decades. Part 2 includes the history of comparative surveys in USSR and post-Soviet countries. The chapters of the book cover key components and stages of comparative cross-country survey methodology – designing questionnaire for comparative survey, translation of survey instrument into different languages and adaptation to different socio-cultural context, advanced methods of testing and verifying translations, choice of languages for interviewing in multi-lingual environment, constructing comparable samples of population in different countries, administration of interviews, comparative measurement of contextual variables – education, profession, age etc. Most examples in the book are drawn from the experience and data of comparative cross-country surveys in countries of the former Soviet Union which will be special interest for academic and broader audience in Russia and other post-Soviet countries.



The level of inflation is one of the most important macro economic indicators which influences directly on cost and standards of living of population.

The inflation level didn’t exceed 10% in Russia in past few years. Probably that was the reason why HR departments had less attention to problems of salary indexation to compensate inflation.

The Russian economy demonstrated the fall down of key macro economic indicators since beginning of year 2014 till the level of year 2010. The geopolitical changes, economic sanctions of majority large developed countries against Russia and large decrease of Brent oil rates provoke strong pressure on speed of economic growth. Ruble had weakened its positions on this background, so USD and Euro rates had historical maximums in December 2014 in Moscow foreign exchange market.

That’s why now it is extremely important not to loose situation and to monitor the inflation level..

If the companies will again pay salaries considering USD/ Euro rate only, the strong Ruble devaluation may increase the salaries expenditures a lot, as it has already been in year 1998. Payment of salaries in Rubles with their further indexation according to inflation will be a more flexible solution, more profitable for employer.

One should have the reliable data on inflation in order to index salaries in time in a right way, and we are ready to provide this data to you.

Unfortunately, the current official statistics on inflation is not perfect, it doesn’t allow to evaluate the consumption level of middle and high income groups, so it is hard for employer to define a right rate of salary indexation using official data only.


Problems of choosing index

The consumer price index (CPI), provided by State Statistical Committee of Russia (Goskomstat) to measure inflation, doesn’t solve the problem of adequate indexation of employees salary. They use total population to calculate this index (which in reality means the low income groups). The structure of expenses of such groups is taken into account, as well as prices for goods consumed by these groups. However, the employees of many companies (especially joint-stock and offices of international companies in Russia) do not belong to such low-income groups of population. Naturally, inflation influences on such employees in different way. And usage of official CPI is not effective there. The salary indexation, which was calculated using low-income data doesn’t provide competitive salary indexation at all.

To solve this problem, our  analytics had investigated in year 1998 the only of its kind method of calculation of Cost of living index, which is used for salary compensation in modern reality.




Picture. 1. Goskomstat and CESSI data comparison.


That is -  Cost of Living Index (CLI), which is calculated by Institute for Comparative Social Research (CESSI) since year 1998.

This is a method proven with years, which helps us to make conclusions about current inflation.

Let’s look at it in details.

Periodically we check the prices for definite goods/ services in definite outlets of the cities.

Each time we compare the results with previous data. So, we receive the price change for goods/ services which are consumed by modern employee. Then the changes for each good/ services are weighted according to their average consumption. This is the way we receive the Cost of Living Index. This index can vary much depending on which goods/ services are taken, which outlets are checked and which weights are used.

As the inflation rate may be minor in some regions and change dramatically in others, the inflation rate is measured separately in each city. There are 32 cities in Russia, as well as cities in Ukraine and Kazakhstan in our current list. This list is constantly widened, and the client can include any city/ town into this list at any time.

We provide analytical reports to our clients each month/ quarter/ half a year or annually – depending on requests. We try to treat each situation individually and we are flexible regarding the list of cities and our prices on reports.

Our analytic reports contain:

·         information on USD and Euro rates changes. We present not just the official rate, but the exchange rates in the banks of each city as well;

·         inflation in USD and Euro for each city;

·         price changes for each good/ service participating in research;

·         detailed statistics on inflation rate and currency exchange rate since August 1998;

·         information on Cost of Living Index change for each employee group (workers/ specialists/ managers) in each city;

 We can calculate inflation level for any period – quarter, semi-year, year etc.;

We can also calculate the average price level comparing to Moscow (considering Moscow as 100%);

We can include any city into the study, as we have the wide network of interviewers in Russia and abroad.